Karl Marx dan Krisis Kapitalisme

Karl Marx dan Krisis Kapitalisme

Ini ada artikel yang baru-baru ini dimuat di Sydney Morning Herald :

http://www.smh.com.au/world/can-karl-marx-save-capitalism-20110829-1ji2i.html
Can Karl Marx save capitalism?
George Magnus
August 29, 2011 – 6:59PM

The spirit of Karl Marx has risen from the grave amid the financial crisis
and subsequent economic slump.

Policy makers struggling to understand the barrage of financial panics,
protests and other ills afflicting the world would do well to study the
works of a long-dead economist: Karl Marx.

The sooner they recognise we’re facing a once-in-a-lifetime crisis of
capitalism, the better equipped they will be to manage a way out of it.

The spirit of Marx, who is buried in a cemetery close to where I live in
north London, has risen from the grave amid the financial crisis and
subsequent economic slump. The wily philosopher’s analysis of capitalism had
a lot of flaws, but today’s global economy bears some uncanny resemblances
to the conditions he foresaw.

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Consider, for example, Marx’s prediction of how the inherent conflict
between capital and labour would manifest itself.

As he wrote in Das Kapital, companies’ pursuit of profits and productivity
would naturally lead them to need fewer and fewer workers, creating an
“industrial reserve army” of the poor and unemployed: “Accumulation of
wealth at one pole is, therefore, at the same time accumulation of misery.”

The process he describes is visible throughout the developed world,
particularly in the US companies’ efforts to cut costs and avoid hiring have
boosted US corporate profits as a share of total economic output to the
highest level in more than six decades, while the unemployment rate stands
at 9.1 per cent and real wages are stagnant.

US income inequality, meanwhile, is by some measures close to its highest
level since the 1920s. Before 2008, the income disparity was obscured by
factors such as easy credit, which allowed poor households to enjoy a more
affluent lifestyle. Now the problem is coming home to roost.

Over-production paradox

Marx also pointed out the paradox of over-production and under-consumption:
The more people are relegated to poverty, the less they will be able to
consume all the goods and services companies produce. When one company cuts
costs to boost earnings, it’s smart, but when they all do, they undermine
the income formation and effective demand on which they rely for revenues
and profits.

This problem, too, is evident in today’s developed world. We have a
substantial capacity to produce, but in the middle- and lower-income
cohorts, we find widespread financial insecurity and low consumption rates.

The result is visible in the US, where new housing construction and
automobile sales remain about 75 per cent and 30 per cent below their 2006
peaks, respectively.

As Marx put it in Kapital: “The ultimate reason for all real crises always
remains the poverty and restricted consumption of the masses.”

Addressing the crisis

So how do we address this crisis? To put Marx’s spirit back in the box,
policy makers have to place jobs at the top of the economic agenda, and
consider other unorthodox measures. The crisis isn’t temporary, and it
certainly won’t be cured by the ideological passion for government
austerity.

Here are five major planks of a strategy whose time, sadly, has not yet
come.

1. We have to sustain aggregate demand and income growth, or else we could
fall into a debt trap along with serious social consequences. Governments
that don’t face an imminent debt crisis – including the US, Germany and the
U.K. – must make employment creation the litmus test of policy. In the US,
the employment-to-population ratio is now as low as in the 1980s. Measures
of underemployment almost everywhere are at record highs. Cutting employer
payroll taxes and creating fiscal incentives to encourage companies to hire
people and invest would do for a start.

2. To lighten the household debt burden, new steps should allow eligible
households to restructure mortgage debt, or swap some debt forgiveness for
future payments to lenders out of any home price appreciation.

3. To improve the functionality of the credit system, well-capitalised and
well-structured banks should be allowed some temporary capital adequacy
relief to try to get new credit flowing to small companies, especially.
Governments and central banks could engage in direct spending on or indirect
financing of national investment or infrastructure programs.

4. To ease the sovereign debt burden in the euro zone, European creditors
have to extend the lower interest rates and longer payment terms recently
proposed for Greece. If jointly guaranteed euro bonds are a bridge too far,
Germany has to champion an urgent recapitalisation of banks to help absorb
inevitable losses through a vastly enlarged European Financial Stability
Facility – a sine qua non to solve the bond market crisis at least.

5. To build defences against the risk of falling into deflation and
stagnation, central banks should look beyond bond- buying programs, and
instead target a growth rate of nominal economic output. This would allow a
temporary period of moderately higher inflation that could push
inflation-adjusted interest rates well below zero and facilitate a lowering
of debt burdens.

We can’t know how these proposals might work out, or what their unintended
consequences might be. But the policy status quo isn’t acceptable, either.
It could turn the US into a more unstable version of Japan, and fracture the
euro zone with unknowable political consequences. By 2013, the crisis of
Western capitalism could easily spill over to China, but that’s another
subject.

George Magnus is senior economic adviser at UBS and author of Uprising: Will
Emerging Markets Shape or Shake the World Economy? The opinions expressed
are his own.

Bloomberg

Read more:
http://www.smh.com.au/world/can-karl-marx-save-capitalism-20110829-1ji2i.html#ixzz1WVxzoE9w
Sumber: http://tamanmiryanti.blogspot.com/p/esai.html

Karl Marx dan Krisis Kapitalisme

“Perekonomian dunia nyaris resesi,” kata Morgan Stanley pada 17 Agustus
2011. Para analis pasar saham London Edwards menyebutnya sebagai “Ice Age”
bagi perekonomian global, menurutnya, “krisis finansial sejak tahun 2008
nyatanya berlanjut sampai kini menjadi krisis hutang, adalah “double dip”.

Padahal penanganan krisis sistim ekonomi kapitalisme seakan-akan slalu
punya resep tangguh, dan sepertinya mampu memberi situasi kehidupan warga
dunia lebih baik dan mapan. Pada saat ada pertumbuhan ekonomi, Marx  dicela,

tapi dalam keadaan krisis ekonomi, ia terus keluar dari lemari: Karl Marx
abad 19 adalah seorang filsuf, ekonom dan pionir gerakan komunis. Tahun
1989  penerbit Berlin mencetak ulang karya lengkap Marx dan Engels untuk pertama
kalinya . Dan, sejak saat itu banyak politisi dan ekonom menganalisis
krisis  dari tahun ke tahun dengan menggunakan “Das Kapital” karya Karl Marx yang
dibencinya itu. Ibaratnya di saat situasi ekonomi krisis, Karl Marx
kembali  mengepung kota.

Seorang Ekonom Amerika yang bukan Marxist, Nouriel Roubini mengakuinya
bahwa: “Marx benar”, ia menyatakan “Kapitalisme menghancurkan dirinya
sendiri. Pergeseran pendapatan dari tenaga kerja ke modal, mengakibatkan
peningkatan produksi kapasitas dan penurunan permintaan terhadap produksi
konsumsi. Pemangkasan jam kerja akan menurunkan pendapatan bagi kaum
pekerja, hal inilah yang meningkatkan ketidaksetaraan serta mengurangi
permintaan daya beli.”

Krisis over-produksi sejak tahun 1973

Tentunya kita masih ingat dan mengalaminya, tahun 1973 ekonomi kapitalis
mengalami krisis overproduksi struktural akibat penemuan teknologi
inovatip.
Kemudian tahun 80an ditemukan celah untuk menunda krisis, dengan

dilanjutkannya restrukturisasi besar-besaran dalam sektor industri baja,
pertambangan, industri kaca, tekstil dan pembuatan kapal. Produksi
konsumsi
itu terus meningkat secara artifisial tinggi sebagai komunitas global
budaya
konsumsi. Pada waktu itu presiden Reagan di AS dan Perdana Menteri
Thatcher
di Inggris melakukan serangan terhadap serikat buruh, memberi keringanan
pajak tinggi bagi golongan orang kaya, sehingga mereka bisa mengeluarkan
uang sebanyak-banyaknya dan deregulasi dalam skala dunia pasar finansial.

Kapital telah mencari jalan keluar dengan mengalirkan modalnya ke sektor
finansial. Maka BNP (Bruto Nasional Produk) mencapai lima kali lebih  besar,
sedangkan hasil di sektor finansial lima belas kali lebih besar pada
tingkat  global. Dengan begitu spekulasi di sektor finansial kapital melonjak
tinggi,  sehingga krisis overproduksi melalui agenda peningkatan investasi di
ekonomi  riil tidak memberi keuntungan signifikan.

Sampai tahun 2000 masyarakat miskin di AS dipicu sebagai “peminjam uang”
untuk menjadi konsumen bank tanpa mekanisme kontrol atas pendapatan salary
mereka di sektor proprerti, lalu 6 juta pembeli rumah dinyatakan tidak
memiliki persyaratan standar nilai kredit, dan 3 juta orang telah
kehilangan rumah tinggalnya.

Sementara itu di tahun 80an, negara-negara di eropa barat mengalami pula
“pertumbuhan ekonomi” secara eksponensial, pendapatan negara melalui pajak
dan keuntungan modal mengalir deras seperti salju mencair dari gunung Es.
Pada tahun 2008 pintu gerbang baja bendungan krisis finansial menjebol
dunia, arus efek domino mengalir deras sampai kini ke jurang krisis hutang
pendapatan Negara di Amerika maupun di Eropa. Di Belgia, menurut ormas
Solidair, tahun 2009 ada lima puluh perusahaan multinasional yang paling
menguntungkan di Belgia tidak membayar pajak sejumlah 14,3 milyar euro.

Kas Anggaran Pendapatan di negara-negara Barat mengalami tingkatan minus
akibat lambannya pertumbuhan ekonomi. Tercatat hutang AS naik, dari 62%
dari BNP di tahun 2007 menjadi 101% pada tahun 2011. Di Eropa, Irlandia, sampai
akhir 2010 tercatat defisit sebesar 32%, Yunani dan Portugal lebih dari
9%,  Perancis 7,7%, Spanyol 5,7% dan 4,1% di Belgia. Maka krisis finansial 2008
berubah menjadi krisis Hutang pemerintah.

Kontradiksi dalam sistim ekonomi kapitalisme sejak tahun 1973 tersebut,
bukan disebabkan oleh krisis finansial yang kemudian berlanjut menjadi
krisis hutang tapi karena adanya proses panjang krisis overproduksi.
Krisis
overproduksi yang terus menerus dalam sistim ekonomi kapitalisme,
dinyatakan
pula oleh Marx pada tahun 1850 dalam bukunya “Das Kapital. Produksi
kapasitas akan terus meningkat secara global karena persaingan bebas,
mengejar keuntungan dan menghemat investasi tenaga kerja, Maka daya beli
terhadap produksi konsumsi mengalami penurunan karena peningkatan
pengangguran dan penekanan/penurunan salary yang tak bisa lagi dihindari.
Lalu, apakah kita semua telah tertipu dengan bermacam ragam penanganan
krisis ekonomi kapitalisme?

Krisis kapital
Karl Marx mengepung kota
Rakyat berlawan

 

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